On Wed, 6 Dec 2017 11:45:32 +1100, Peter Moylan
Post by Peter Moylan Post by email@example.com
You could also, to appease DavidW, use the adjectival
"The markets were reined-in for hours by confusion.",
but that may detract from the desired emphasis.
When you use a phrasal verb as an adjective, you hyphenate it when the
adjective comes before the noun. There's no hyphen when it comes after
the noun, therefore no hyphen in this example.
(I have a feeling that this rule applies to any multi-word adjective,
not just the ones formed from phrasal verbs, but for now I can't think
of enough examples to be confident of this assertion.)
I use more hyphens (and more semi-colons) than most people
do. I use them whenever it seems to me that they will tend to
prevent garden-paths or otherwise minimize confusion. I think
that /some/ rule-writers take clarity into account.
The original contained a pun, accidental or otherwise, since
"confusion reigned" is a fixed phrase. If the headline writer
wanted clarity, to rule out the punning meaning, he could have
inserted the hyphen; or used a different metaphor in order to